The Basic Book of Photography

The Basic Book of Photography

Fifth Edition


Format
Paperback
Price
$26.00
 
  • Paperback
  • ISBN 9780452284258
  • 672 Pages
  • Plume
  • Adult

Overview

For nearly three decades, The Basic Book of Photography has been the ideal handbook for beginning and experienced photographers alike.  This comprehensive edition has been expanded to include the latest technological innovations in digital photography and the most modern methods and products used in traditional film photography.

So whether you use a single lens reflex (SLR), compact, APS, single-use, instant, or digital camera, you’ll learn everything you need to know about how to operate your photo equipment successfully to produce the most striking pictures.

This greatly expanded edition includes:

  • An all new chapter on digital cameras and imaging
  • Indoor and outdoor lighting techniques
  • Descriptions of all color, black-and-white, and infrared films
  • Procedures for processing your own pictures
  • Ways to enjoy your photography on the internet

With more than 395 instructive illustrations and an extensive glossary, The Basic Book of Photography help you become the photographer you always wanted to be.

Table of Contents

Smile, Say “Cheese”
1. COMPOSING EFFECTIVE PHOTOGRAPHS
Pictures with a Purpose
Have a Center of Interest

Put the Main Subject Off Center
rule of thirds, dividing the horizon

Get in Close
Keep the Horizon Straight
Watch the Background
Check All Angles
Try Leading Lines
Frame the Subject
Vary the Format
Include Size Indicators

Focus for Effect
depth of field use

Expose Accurately

Include Some Action
stop-action, point of reference, chart of suggested shutter speeds, peak of action, panning, using flash, slow shutter speeds, blurring, zooming

Use Good Timing
time of day

Consider Color
also for black-and-white photography

Use Your Imagination
breaking the rules, experimentation

2. OPERATING YOUR CAMERA
camera instruction manual

The “Best” Camera”The 35mm Revolution
various types of cameras: small-, medium-, and large-format

Single Lens Reflex or Compact Camera?
various camera names, various automatic features, viewfinder differences, parallax error, focusing differences, shutter differences

Protecting Your Camera
camera strap, case, bag, precautions, maintenance

Safeguarding Your Lenses
cleaning, lens shade, protective filters, lens cap

Holding the Camera
camera movement/shake, shutter release technique, self-timer, vibration reduction/image stabilization, cable release and remote cord, mirror lock-up, eyepiece shutter/blind

Loading Your Camera – for Sure
autoload, film leader, take-up spool, cassette, chamber, rewing crank/knob, loading mark, transport reel, sprocket holes, manual loading, film rewind button, transport indicator, frame counter, load indicator, view window, autowind, film prewind, autorewind, film pressure plate

Changing Partially Exposed Rolls of Film
film rewind procedures, frame counter, leader retriever, changing bag, reload procedure, APS mid-roll change

Making Multiple Exposures
double/multiple exposures, multiple exposure control, multiexposure mode

Understanding Film Speeds (ISO)
latent image, slow-speed, medium-speed, and high-speed/fast films, ASA, DIN and ISO film speed rating systems, ISO chart, interrelationships of film speeds, relationship to exposure, exposure meters, auto-exposure cameras

Comprehending Shutter Speeds
shutter speed control dial and LCD information panel, focal plane shutters, specific shutter speeds, B (bulb) and T (time) shutter settings, time exposures, lock-screw cable release, trigger-lock and programmable remote cords, interrelationships of shutter speeds

Adjusting Lens Openings
aperture/diaphragm, specific f/stops, interrelationships of f/stops, lens focal length, full stops and half-stops, click stops, interrelationships of lens openings and shutter speeds, auto-exposure cameras, multimode exposure cameras, programmed mode, specialized programmed modes, shutter-priority mode, aperture-priority mode

Figuring Focus
autofocus cameras, autofocus lenses, autofocusing, fixed/free focus, zone focus, autofocusing single lens reflex cameras (lens focusing ring, focus control switch, focus detection area, and in-focus indicator), focusing screen, automatic lens aperture, manual focusing single lens reflex cameras (split-image rangefinder and microprism focusing collar), distance scale, infinity, point of focus indicator, infrared focus indicator, viewfinder coverage and magnification, high-eyepoint viewfinders, eyecup, diopter correction control, eyepiece correction lenses

Dealing with Depth of Field
depth of field scale and chart, techniques to determine and control depth of field, depth of field preview device, hyperfocal distance

Recognizing Some Common Photo Abbreviations

3. DETERMINING EXPOSURE
types of exposure meters: built-in and hand-held

Setting the Film Speed (ISO)
LCD information panel, film speed dial, range of film speeds/ISO numbers

Setting the ISO automatically with DX-coded films
DX (data exchange), film speed controls, exposure index (EI)

Understanding Automatic Exposure (AE) Controls
auto-exposure (AE) cameras, multimode exposure, exposure mode selector/control dial, programmed (P) mode, aperture-priority (A) mode, shutter-priority (S) mode, manual (M) mode, specialized programmed exposure modes, aperture-preferred cameras, shutter-preferred cameras

Understanding Exposure Metering Systems
through-the-lens (TTL) metering, averaging meters, center-weighted metering, spot metering, multizone metering, off-the-film (OTF) flash metering, automatic aperture, open-aperture/full-aperture metering, depth of field preview, stop-down metering

Working with Exposure Override Controls
exposure lock/memory lock, backlight mode, exposure compensator, exposure compensation dial, manual exposure

Bracketing for the Best Exposure
bracketing technique, exposure latitude, autobracketing

Concerning Exposure Meter Photocells
selenium cell, cadmium sulfide (CdS) cell, silicon photo diode (SPD), silicon blue cell (SBC), metering range, exposure value (EV), sensitivity warnings

Dealing with Exposure Meter and Camera Batteries
battery check, battery sizes, battery types (alkaline, lithium, nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride, replaceable and rechargeable), battery chargers, battery precautions

Considering Hand-held Exposure Meters
reflected-light and incident-light readings, flash meters, color temperature meters, exposure lock, averaging and spot meters, angle of acceptance, zero adjustment

Simple Alternatives for Setting Exposures
film instruction data, f/16 rule of thumb, experienced guess

Making Accurate Exposure Readings
proper exposure, highlight detail, shadow detail, middle/average tone, extremes in contrast, exposing for the main subject, multizone metering, spot metering, hand reading, photographic gray card, bracketing, exposure latitude, Ansel Adams Zone System

4. CHOOSING LENSES
interchangeable lenses, focal length, subject image size, angle of view/field of view

Types of Lenses
normal/standard lens, telephoto lens, wide-angle lens, fish-eye lens, circular fish-eye lens, full-frame fish-eye lens, ultra-wide-angle lens, list of lens focal lengths and angles of view, fixed/single focal length, zoom lens, variable aperture zoom lens, macro lens, close-up lens, diopter, extension tubes and bellows, autofocus lenses, camera types with permanently mounted lenses

Determing the Quality and Cost of Lenses
technical jargon, cost, optical quality, aspherical lens, apochromatic lens, maximum lens opening, sharpness, internal focusing, image stabilization, gray-market lenses

Mounting Lenses
bayonet, breech-lock, and screw mounts

All About Autofocus Lenses
focus control switch, focus mode selector, single shot focus, focus priority, continuous focus, release priority, predictive autofocus, film advance control, single frame and continuous advance, high-speed and low-speed continuous advance, electronic rangefinder, in-focus indicator, focus detection area, cross-type and multi AF sensors, wide area and spot area autofocusing, eye-control autofocusing, focusing on off-center subjects, autofocus lock, passive phase detection and active infrared autofocus systems, AF assist/autofocus illuminator beam, autofocusing limitations, interchangeable focusing screens, freeze/trap focus

Praising Zippy Zoom Lenses
uses, features, macro/close-focus capabilities, variable focal length/varifocal lenses, one-touch and two-touch controls

Tips for Using Telephoto Lenses
uses, types, camera movement concerns, tripod, pistol grip and shoulder brace support, maximum lens aperture, depth of field, lens extender/converter, reflext-type mirror/catadioptric telephoto

Working with Wide-Angle Lenses
Working with Wide-Angle Lenses

focal lengths, uses, distortion, depth of field, keystoning, perspective-correction/control lens

Making It Big with Macro Lenses
macro/micro/close-focus lenses, reproduction ratios, critical focus, ring light, lens reversing/macro adapter ring

Creating Large Images with Close-up Lenses
accessory lenses, diopter, focusing ranges, variable close-up lenses, sizes, focusing and framing, parallax error

Nonoptical Options for Making Close-ups
extension tubes and bellows

5. FINDING OUT ALL ABOUT FLASH
fill flash, flashbulbs, electronic flash

Day and Night Uses of Flash
Farewell to Flashbulbs
Types of Flash Equipment
built-in flash, automatic flash operating range, red-eye reduction, accessory flash unit, shoe-mount flash, hot shoe, accessory shoe, handle-mount flash, flash bracket, studio flash, modeling lights, ring light/macro flash

Determining Flash Power
light output, flash guide number, zoom flash head, light output control, flash exposure test

Understanding Flash Synchronization
focal plane shutters, fastest shutter speeds, hot shoe, flash cord sockets, flash synchronization test

Features of Shoe-Mount Flash
brands, feature summary, dedicated autoflash, flash mounting foot, universal dedicated autoflash, hot shoe modules, automatic flash exposure/autoflash, TTL (through-the-lens) autoflash, off-the-film (OTF) flash metering, flash mode selector, automatic fill flash, non-TTL autoflash, photocell sensor, automatic flash operating ranges, LCD information panel, indicator bar, distance scale, sensor coverage, manual flash control, on/off power switch, flash status signals (ready light and sufficient light indicator/confidence light), open flash/test flash button, tilting and rotating flash head, secondary flash head, catchlight, bounce card, bare-bulb flash, auto-zoom flash head, flash coverage/angle of illumination, wide-angle flash adapter/diffuser, telephoto flash adapter, zoom head adjustment button, AF assist/auto illuminator beam, in-focus indicator, red-eye reduction, preflashes, red-eye reduction pen, flash exposure bracketing, flash exposure compensation, light output/variable power control, slow sync, ghosting, rear-curtain/second curtain/trailing sync, normal/first curtain/leading sync, high-speed sync, repeating/multiple/stroboscopic flash, slave flash, wireless/remote slave flash, radio slave, “use flash”/”flash needed” signals

Facts About Flash Batteries
types (replaceable and rechargeable), recycle time, number of flashes, power-saving/thyristor circuitry, choosing lithium, alkaline, or nickel-cadmium batteries, battery packs, battery life, battery tester, AC adapter

Concerns About Flash Cords and Connections
off-camera flash, types of flash cords, TTL sync/remote cord, non-TTL remote sensor cord, PC cord, faulty cord test, hot shoe flash socket (PC) adapter, wireless remote flash, remote flash sensor, radio slave, wireless TTL auto-exposure flash

Figuring Manual Flash Exposures
flash mode selector, flash guide number, light output/variable power control, light output f/stop and flash-to-subject equivalents, interrelationships of film speeds, flash-to-subject distances and f/stops

Fill Flash for More Flattering Photos
fill/fill-in/synchro-sunlight flash, balance with the ambient light, dedicated TTL autoflash for fill flash, non-TTL autoflash for fill flash, manual flash for fill flash, adjustments for manual fill flash (light output/variable power control, zoom flash head, reposition camera/flash, and covering head with hankerchief), indoor fill flash, lighting ratios

Bounce Flash for Better Pictures
flat/on-camera flash, bounce flash techniques, bounce light reflector, bounce light exposure for dedicated TTL autoflash, sufficient light indicator, open flash button, manual exposure for bounce flash, photographic umbrella

Other Useful Flash Techniques
flash meter, off-camera flash, multiple flash, infrared wireless TTL auto-exposure remote flash, multiple flashes (for open flash/painting with light, to increase the light, and to increase depth of field), multiple exposure control, repeating flash mode, flash with color filters, filtered fill flash, flash color balance, close-ups with flash

Practical Considerations with Flash
uniform illumination, shadows, flash position, reflective objects, checking closed eyes

6. SELECTING FILMS
name brands, private label/store brands, film box, film data, data sheet, expiration date, shelf life, professional film, consumer/amateur film, refrigerated storage, premium film

Types of Film
color negative/color print film, color reversal/color positive/color transparency/color slide film, black-and-white film, daylight film, tungsten film, tungsten light, color balance, color temperature, kelvins (K), filters, color sensitivity, panchromatic films, definition, sharpness, resolution/resolving power, graininess

Special-Purpose Films
infrared film, copy film, duplicating film, instant slide film, processing Polaroid’s instant slide film, black-and-white reversal film, black-and-white chromogenic film, two-for-one/gimmick film, digitized film images on CDs and DVDs

Speeds of Film
ISO number, slow-speed, medium-speed and high-speed/fast films, relative sensitivity of films, exposure equivalents, exposure index (EI), push and pull processing, ASA, DIN, ISO, DX symbol, film speed control, reciprocity effect

Sizes of Films
35mm film, cassettes, film leader, bulk film/long rolls, APS film, roll film, cartridge film, subminiature film, disc film, sheet/cut film, film holders, film packets

Processing of Films
fast-photo minilabs, demanding good quality, custom labs, special processing, wholesale photofinishers, mail-order photofinishers, prepaid processing mailers, cost of processing, do-it-yourself processing

Color and Black-and-White Films Currently Available
choosing a film, lists of color negative (print), color reversal (slide), and black-and-white films

7. IMPROVING PHOTOS WITH FILTERS
general filter facts (names, colors, numbers, and materials), accessory lenses, screw-in filters, step-up rings, series filters, filter adapters, series filter coverage, slip-on adapters, set-screw adapters, bayonet mounts, filter holder, filter systems, filter manufacturers, removing filters, general categories (light-balancing, conversion, color compensating, correction, and contrast filters), vignetting, autofocusing cautions

Understanding Filter Factors
exposure compensation, chart of exposure changes, checking through-the-lens (TTL) meters, resetting hand-held meters

Three Filters for All Films
ultraviolet (UV)/haze filter, skylight filter, polarizing filter, circular and linear polarizing filters, neutral density (ND) filters, chart of ND filters, graduated ND filters

Filters for Color Photography
general categories, why and when to use filters, light-balancing filters, chart of light-balancing filters and effects, warming filters, conversion filters (types and uses), fluorescent light filters, color compensating (CC) filters

Filters for Black-and-White Photography
panchromatic films, correction filters, contrast filters, Kodak Wratten filters, chart with filter numbers, former names, colors, filter factors and exposure increases, primary and secondary/complementary colors, filter color absorption and transmitting characteristics, other attributes and uses

Filters for Fun and Special Effects
star/cross-screen filter, star effect, diffusion/soft-focus filter, spot/clear-center filter, fog filter, accessory lenses, multiple-image lens, split-field lens, diffraction filters, motion filters

8. CONSIDERING ACCESSORY EQUIPMENT

Tips About Tripods
various uses, avoiding camera shake (self-timer, cable release, and remote cord), tripod brands, construction, legs, leg locks, elevator post, feet, various heads, spirit level, foam insulation, carrying strap and case, minipod, pistol grip, shoulder brace, C-clamp, beanbag, unipod

Considerations about Camera Bags
hard cases, soft-sided bags, construction, material, shoulder strap, closures, bag configurations and access, identification, hip and chest bags, photo backpacks, photo vests

Multiple Choices with Multifunction and Data Backs
data back, multifunction back, multicontrol back

Fast Filming with Motor Drives
autowinder, motor drive, frames per second, speed controls, time-lapse photography, remote controls

Buying Used Accessory Equipment

9. USING POINT-AND-SHOOT AND OTHER CONVENIENCE CAMERAS
Instamatic, disc, compact 35mm, APS, single-use, instant , and digital cameras

Mastering 35mm Compact Cameras
point-and-shoot/lens-shutter cameras, active infrared and passive phase detection autofocus systems, infinity lock, focusing zones, fixed focus lens, focusing frame, wide-area autofocusing, autofocus lock, macro/close-up mode, parallax error, real image viewfinders, auto-exposure, overriding auto-exposure, backlight mode, exposure compensation, night, bulb/time, and TV modes, range of shutter speeds and f/stops, vibration reduction, DX-coded film cassettes, single and dual focal length lenses, zoom lenses, maximum f/stop, midrange and super zooms, built-in autoflash, flash range, red-eye reduction, preflash, flash-off button, auto fill-flash mode, flash-on button, autowind, auto rewind, film loading mark, film rewind button, prewind, film frame counter, film cassette window, self-timer, variable self-timer, panoramic format, data back and special functions, LCD information panel, battery power, solar power, weatherproof and waterproof cameras

Avoiding Compact Camera Calamities
pitfalls to avoid and techniques to remember

Better Snapshots with APS (Advanced Photo System) Cameras
APS film, film status indicators, mid-roll change, magnetic coating, back-printing, photo file index print, print format control, framing masks, photo players, photo scanners, print quality, camera features, single-use models, Picture Quality Information Exchange (PQIX)

Simple Shooting with Single-Use Cameras
one-time-use camera, flash, waterproof and panoramic models, film types, speeds and number of exposures, print sizes, focus range, lens focal lengths, lens openings, shutter speeds, flash range, viewfinders, shirt-pocket models, shooting tips, film frame counter

Almost Gone But Not Forgotten: Instamatic Cameras
availability of cameras and films

On-the-Spot Prints with Polaroid Instant Cameras
history, peel-apart and integral films, automation, current models and features, instant films, film sizes, development times, lighten/darken exposure dial, print storage, tips for using instant cameras, 35mm instant films

The Impact of Convenience Cameras

10. DELVING INTO DIGITAL CAMERAS AND IMAGING
digital camera, continuous-tone/analog images, picture elements/pixels, scanners, computer hard drive, image-editing software, image manipulation

The Digital Camera Difference
LCD (liquid crystal display) monitor, image sensor, buffer, memory card, shutter lag, recycle/capture rate, burst rate

Resolution Is the Key to Digital Image Quality
image quality, high resolution, low resolution, pixels, dots per inch (dpi), image sensor, megapixels, CCD (charge-coupled device), CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor), Foveon X3 chip, recording mode, effective/recording pixels, exposure time delay, memory storage capacity, RAM (random access memory), MB (megabytes), internal memory, memory/flash memory cards, GB (gigabytes), types of memory cards, floppy disk, memory card readers/writers, long-term image storage, CDs, DVDs, PC card adapter, portable digital storage devices, image compression, file formats (JPEG, TIFF, RAW), resolution image, technical specifications

Features of Digital Cameras
camera appearance, zoom lens reflex (ZLR) models, camera brands, autofocus indicators, autofocus lock, autofocus limitations, close-ups, macro mode, parallax error, auto-exposure, lens aperture, shutter speed, exposure compensation mode, ISO exposure settings, noise, exposure metering systems, spot metering, white balance, automatic white balance mode, lenses, zoom lens, optical zoom, digital zoom, interpolation, pixelization/jaggies, lens converters, focal length multiplier, vignetting, lens adapter, variable maximum aperture, image stabilization/vibration reduction, LCD monitor, optical viewfinder, parallax error, diopter correction control, electronic viewfinder, autoflash, hot shoe, external flash terminal/flash cord socket, built-in flash, flash range, flash recharge time, flash ready light, autoflash mode, manual/fill-in flash mode, red-eye reduction mode, slow sync mode, no flash/flash off mode, flash exposure compensation, panorama/stitch mode, movie mode, erase mode, protection mode, index mode, DPOF (digital print order format), self-timer, tripod socket, LCD information panel, AC adapter, computer/TV connecting cords/cables, camera/TV compatibility, slide-show mode, battery types (alkaline and lithium), rechargeable batteries (nickel metal hydride, nickel cadmium, lithium ion), battery packs, camera care, camera purchase tips

Showing Off Your Digital Photographs
Working with Digital Image Files
digital/desktop darkroom, digital image files, computer performance, RAM (random access memory), hard drive

Scanning Prints, Negatives, and Slides
input devices, drum scanner, flatbed scanner, film scanner, transparency adapter, scanner resolution, dots per inch (dpi), dynamic range/density range, noise, color depth/bit depth, scanning speed, dust and scratch removal

Being Creative with Image-Editing Software
image-editing/image-processing software programs, filters/effects, templates

Saving Digital Image Files
digital file formats (JPEG, TIFF)

Making Photo-Quality Digital Prints
output devices, photo-quality printers, inkjet printers, brands, paper widths, printer speeds, printer resolution, dots per inch (dpi), image-editing software, print size, image resolution, pixels per inch (ppi), interpolation, direct printing, compatible cable connections, printer ink cartridges, print papers, print formats, color management, dye-sublimation printers, laser printers

Using Photo-Quality Print Papers
paper types, brands, surface/finish, brightness, weight, thickness, special photo print papers, handling print papers, archival permanence

Copying Digital Images onto Photographic Film
film recorder

Displaying Digital Images on the World Wide Web
computer modem, resizing image

Letting Local and Online Photofinishers Do the Work
print ordering procedures, your photos on a Web site, online photo-sharing companies, copying photos to a DVD or a CD

Preserving Digital Images on DVDs and CDs
backup copies, DVD/CD burners, optical versus magnetic storage media, rewritable drive, recordable drive, rewritable discs, recordable discs, DVD players, drive/disc formats, disc capacities, drive speeds

Viewing Photos on Computer Monitors, TVs, and Digital Picture Frames
DVD player, digital picture frames
11. LEARNING ABOUT LIGHTING
natural and artificial light, ambient/existing/available light

Basic Types of Lighting
front/flat lighting, side lighting, backlighting, silhouette, cross lighting

Outdoor Lighting Concerns
directional and diffused lighting, soft and hard lighting, subjects in the shade, top lighting, color casts, light-balancing filter, shadows, backlighting, rainbows, sunsets

Indoor Lighting, Especially for Portraits
umbrella reflector, bounce lighting, portrait lighting plans, main light, fill light, accent/hair light, snoot, barn doors, background light, seamless paper, cross lighting, tunsten/hot light, portrait lighting setups at home, photoflood bulbs, tungsten-halogen bulbs, safety precautions for hot lights, flash, modeling lights

12. PHOTOGRAPHING UNDER SPECIAL CONDITIONS

Shooting with Existing Light and at Night
existing/available/ambient light, chart of trial exposures, shutter speeds, time exposures, flash use, high-speed films, increasing film speed, push processing, fast lenses, figuring exposure, exposure techniques, nighttime subjects including fireworks and the moon, photographing television images, choice of films, bracketing exposures, reciprocity effect

Creating Close-ups and Making Photographic Copies
photomacrography, photomicrography, reproduction ratios, use of macro/micro lenses, use of lens reversing technique, use of extension tubes and bellows, chart of subject magnifications, use of lens extender/lens converter/tele-extender/teleconverter, use of accessory close-up lenses, diopters, variable close-up lens, focusing and framing concerns, parallax error, exposure, exposure factors, film plane, film plane indicator, critical focusing, plane of focus, depth of field, depth of field preview, avoiding camera movement, flash, for close-ups, ring light/macro flash, photographic copying, lighting copy subjects, duplicating 35mm slides, slide duplicator, slide copying adapter, film choices, cleaning slides

Having Fun with Infrared Films
characteristics, uses, film speeds, filters, black-and-white infrared film (types, filters, exposures, special handling, and focusing), infrared focus indicator, color infrared film (type, exposures, filters, handling, and special processing)

Making Multiple Exposures
techniques, multiple exposure control, multiexposure mode, exposure, overlapping images, overlapping colors, flash use, light output/variable power control, open flash/test flash button, repeating/multiple/stroboscopic flash, careful composition, subject suggestions including full moon and ghost images, rear-curtain/second curtain/trailing sync, making a physiograph, multiple-image lens, sandwiching images

Flying with Your Camera
general advice, focusing, active infrared autofocus, infinity lock, subjects, weather, timing, shutter speeds, filters, chartering aircraft

Adventuring Underwater with a Camera
waterproof single-use cameras, waterproof 35mm and APS automatic compact cameras, sports cameras, amphibious cameras, Nikonos, SLR underwater camera, waterproof camera housings (brands, types, features, and depth limitations), water’s effect on light, decrease in light intensity, flash use, color absorption, light diffusion, backscatter, light refraction, effective lens focal lengths, figuring focus, film choices, equipment care, photography beneath the sea

Photographing into a Fish Tank
fish tank photography (techniques, lighting, and flash exposures), marine aquariums

Shooting Through Binoculars
binocular and camera choice, mounting, focusing and framing, effective focal length, support, effective f/stop opening, exposure adjustment

Trying a Telescope
camera choice, mounting, telescope camera adapter, earth’s rotation, subjects (moon and stars), astrophotography, star trails, techniques, exposures

Working with a Microscope
camera choice, mounting, light sources (tungsten and flash)

13. TRAVELING WITH A CAMERA

What to Photograph
research, “shoot list,” tell a story, picture categories, people pictures, candid pictures, payment for pictures, size indicators, get in close, aerial views, traveling by tour bus, overall views and close-ups, waiting for better photo situations, editing

Some Practical Advice
safeguards for equipment, theft, cameras in a car, protection from rain, snow and salt water, cold weather concerns, vibration, photo vest

Equipment to Take
camera choices, auto-exposure control, testing new and repaired cameras, lens choices, close-up images, camera bags, flash, batteries, tripod, cable release and remote cord, two camera bodies, one type of film, one type of photography

Film Brands and Prices
overseas purchase, expiration date, processing included

Which Film Speeds?
slow-, medium-, and high-speed films, mid-roll change

How Much Film?
more than you think, discard boxes, carrying film

Protecting and Processing Film
airport security checks, damage by X ray, processing en route, fast-photo minilabs

Mailing Film for Processing
prepaid processing film mailers, precautions

Identifying Film
ID system, keeping a daily record

Regulations Against Photography
camera and film limits, forbidden pictures

U. S. Customs Considerations
registering equipment, duty percentages, camera insurance

Buying Photo Equipment Abroad
no bargain prices, warranty agreements, gray-market merchandise, helpful photo words in six languages

14. PROCESSING FILMS AND PRINTS

Processes for Color and Black-and-White Films
film types (negative/print film and positive/reversal/transparency/slide film), color film processes (C-41, E-6, and K-14), processing kits, black-and-white film developers

Processing in Black-and-White
latent images, processing steps (developer, stop bath, and fixer), contact proof sheets, enlargements

Developing Film
tank, thermometer, and other equipment, time and temperature, chemicals, chemical contamination, useful capacity, loading film in tanks, test run, processing step-by-step, air bubbles, washing, hypo clearing agent, negative storage

Printing Contact Proof Sheets
magnifier/loupe, cropping, chemicals, print washer, tray siphon, drying equipment (drying rack/screens, print dryer, photographic blotters, and ferrotype tin), contact printer/printing frame/proofer, exposure procedures, antistatic brush, safelights, developer temperature, development time and range, developing procedure, print tongs, washing, hypo clearing agent

Selecting Enlarging Papers
brands, contrast, graded contrast papers, variable contrast/multigrade/multicontrast/selective contrast papers, printing filters, filter drawer, filter holder, enlarger variable contrast or color head, paper aspects (image tones, tints, surfaces, and weights), paper speeds, processing characteristics for resin-coated and fiber-base papers, sizes, quantities

Choosing an Englarger
sizes, brands, lenses, lamphouse, illumination systems (color head, dichroic filters, variable contrast (VC) head, diffusion head, condenser head, and cold-light head), negative carriers (glass and glassless), focusing, baseboard, filter drawer, filter holder, enlarger timer, enlarging magnifier/focuser, enlarging easel, paper safe

Making Enlargments
procedure, test print, exposure, washing, drying, exposure adjustments, reciprocity effect, exposure compensation charts, magnification, enlarging meter, exposure manipulation (burning-in and dodging), toners, multiple images, diffusion filter, texture screens, Sabattier effect, photograms, darkroom plan

Analyzing Any Faults in Your Photographs
image contrast, overexposures, underexposures, unexposed film

Other Errors
fuzzy pictures, black spots, light spots, overlapping images, outdated film, improper color balance, faulty flash photos, red-eye

15. SHOWING OFF YOUR PHOTOGRAPHS

Editing Your Photos
Selecting the Best Images for Display
contact proof sheet, index print, magnifier/loupe, changes in contrast and colors, internegatives, scanning and digitizing, print sizes, paper surfaces (sheen and texture), cropping images, automated photo making machine

Mounting and Framing Enlargements
mount board/backing board, archival mount and mat boards, dry mounting tissue, dry mounting press, mat borders, mat cutter, framing, nonglare glass, harmful exposure to light, heat, and humidity

Projecting Slides and Pleasing Your Audience
planning, cleaning slides, slide projectors (sizes, types, bulbs, condenser lenses, and heat-absorbing glass), projection lenses (focal length, zoom lens, flat-field and curved-field lenses), remote focusing and autofocusing, slide popping, glass mounts, Newton’s rings, slide trays/magazines, rotary trays, stack loader, marking slide mounts, remote slide-changing control, automatic timer, dissolve control unit, projection screens, screen sizes, screen surfaces (matte, beaded, and lenticular), slide sorter/light box, editing and arranging, successful presentation, keystoning, audience considerations

16. FINDING YOURSELF IN PHOTOGRAPHY

Photo Books, Magazines, and Newsletters
Photo Advice and Sources on the Internet, DVDs, CDs, and Videotapes
Photo Schools, Workshops, Tours, Clubs, and Contests
Photography for Profit
selling photos, photo credit lines, model releases, property releases, becoming a professional photographer

Appendix A: A Glossary of Photographic Terms
Appendix B: Weights and Measures
Appendix C: Photography-Related Web Sites
Index

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