The Laws of Manu

The Laws of Manu


Translator: Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty

Format
Paperback
Price
$17.00
 
  • Paperback
  • ISBN 9780140445404
  • 448 Pages
  • Penguin Classics
  • Adult

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments

INTRODUCTION

Part I: The History of the Text
1. The Importance of The Laws of Manu
2. The History of the Text in Europe: the British and Nietzsche
3. The Vedic Background: Food and Eaters
4. The Revaluation of All Values: Violence and Vegetarianism
5. The Authority of the Beda in Manu

Part II: The Structure and Meaning of the Text
1. The Coherence of Manu
2. Law in Extremity
3. Contradictions in Manu
4. “Between the idea/And the reality”

Part III: The Translation
1. Why Buhler is Not Good Enough
2. The Continuous Narrative
3. Translating Against the Commentaries
4. The Text and the Critical Apparatus

THE LAWS OF MANU

Chapter I
Verses 1-4; Introducction; 5-20 Creation of the Universe; 21-30 Creation of Innate Activities; 31-5 Creation of the Social Order; 36-50 Creation of Creatures; 51-7 Brahma Sleeps and Wakes; 58-63 The Teaching of the Manus; 64-7 Time; 68-74 The Ages; 75-8 Creation of the Elements; 79-86 The Ages; 87-91 Duties of the Social Classes; 92-101 Pre-eminence of Priests; 102-10 Fruits of this Teaching; 111-19 Contents of This Teaching

Chapter 2
1-5 The Value of Desire; 6-16 Canon and Tradition; 17-24 The Sacred Geography of India; 25-9 The Transformative Rituals; 30-35 The Name-giving; 36-49 Initiation; 41-7 The Period of Vedic Study; 48-51 The Student’s Begging; 52-7 The Student’s Eating; 58-65 Washing; 66-7 Transformative Ceremonies for Women; 68-73 Vedic Recitation; 74-87 “Om” and the Verse to the Sun-god; 88-100 Controlling the Sensory Powers; 101-4 Chanting the Verse to the Sun-god; 105-7 Reciting the Veda; 108-16 People to whom the Veda Should and Should Not Be Taught; 117-33 Greeting People; 134-9 Showing Respect; 140-43 Teachers and Priests; 144-53 The Teacher and the Parents; 154-8 Seniority by Knowledge of the Veda; 159-63 Modest Behaviour; 164-7 Inner Heat and Veda Study; 168-72 Initiation as Birth; 173-93 Proper Conduct for the Student; 194-206 Reverence to the Guru; 207-9 Reverence to the Guru’s Son; 210-17 Caution with the Guru’s Wife; 218-24 More Proper Conduct for the Student; 225-37 The Guru and the Parents; 238-42 People from whom One May Learn the Veda; 243-9 The Perpetual Student

Chapter 3
1-3 Entering the Householder Stage; 4-7 Choosing a Wife; 8-11 Qualities to Avoid in a Wife; 12-19 Wives of Various Classes; 20-35 The Eight Forms of Marraige; 36-44 Results of Good and Bad Marriages; 45-50 Begetting Children; 51-4 Against the Bride-price; 55-63 The Importance of Treating Women Well; 64-6 The Importance of Vedic Verses; 67-74 The Five Great Sacrifices; 75-9 The Importance of the Householder; 80-83 Duties of the Householder; 84-6 Offerings to the Gods; 87-93 Propitiatory Offerings; 94-8 Giving Alms; 99-115 Treatment of Guests; 116-18 Eating Leftovers; 119-21 The Honey-mixture; 122-3 The Ceremony for the Dead; 124-37 People to Invite to the Ceremony for the Dead; 138-44 People Not to Invite to the Ceremony for the Dead; 145-9 More People to Invite to the Ceremony for the Dead; 150-68 More People Not to Invite to the Ceremony for the Dead; 169-75 Types of Adulterers Not to Invite; 176-82 People who Should Not Be at the Ceremony for the Dead; 183-6 Still More People to Invite to the Ceremony for the Dead; 187-90 The Invitation to the Ceremony for the Dead; 191-200 Ancestors of the Ancestors; 201-5 The Ritual to the Gods; 206-10 Preparing the Ceremony for the Dead; 211-13 The Ritual to the Gods; 214-23 The Ceremony for the Dead; 224-30 The Meal; 231-5 The Entertainment; 236-42 Potential Pollutions at the Meal; 243-8 Feeding Uninvited Guests; 249-50 More Potential Pollutions at the Meal; 251-9 The End of the Ceremony; 260-65 Disposing of Leftovers; 266-72 Benefits of Offering Various Foods; 273-82 Auspicious Days for the Ceremony; 283-6 Fruits of the Ceremony

Chapter 4
1-12 Occupations for the Householder; 13-20 The Behaviour of the Householder; 21-4 Interior Sacrifices; 25-8 The Sacrifices of the Householder; 29-39 The Behaviour of the Householder; 40-44 Women that a Householder Should Avoid; 45-52 A Householder’s Excretions; 53-81 General Comportment of a Householder; 84-91 Hells for those who Accept Gifts from Bad Kings; 92-8 Daily Rituals; 99-127 Occasions when the Veda Should Not Be Recited; 128-44 Miscellaneous Prohibitions for a Vedic Graduate; 145-9 Veda Recitation; 150-64 General Comportment of a Vedic Graduate; 165-9 Prohibitions against Harming Priests; 170-74 Avoiding Irreligion; 175-85 General Comportment of a Vedic Graduate; 186-91 Accepting Gifts; 192-200 Hypocrites; 201-4 General Comportment of a Vedic Graduate; 205-23 People whose Food One Should Not Eat; 224-8 Generosity; 229-37 Rewards for Giving Specific Gifts; 238-46 Rewards for Religious Merit after Death; 247-56 Gifts that may be Accepted; 257-60 The Meditation of a Vedic Graduate

Chapter 5
1-4 Fatal Flaws; 5-10 Forbidden Foods; 11-18 Forbidden Birds, Fish and Animals; 19-21 Restorations for Eating Forbidden Foods; 22-5 Food that May be Eaten; 26-44 Meat that May Be Eaten; 46-56 Advantages of Not Eating Meat; 57-66 Pollution after Deaths and Births; 67-73 Pollution after the Death of Children and Women; 74-8 Pollution after a Death at a Distance; 79-84 Pollution after Other Deaths; 85-92 Other Pollutions; 93-9 The Purification of Kings; 100-104 The Death of a Distant Relative; 105-9 Sources of Purification; 110-14 Purification of Metals; 15-26 Purification of Various Objects; 127-31 Things that Are Always Clean; 132-45 Purification of the Polluted Body; 146-51 The Dependence of Women; 152-60 Obedience to the Husband; 161-4 Consequences, for Unfaithful Women; 165-9 The Death of a Wife

Chapter 6
1-4 The Forest-dweller’s Departure; 5-11 The Forest-dweller’s Rituals; 12-21 The Forest-dweller’s Food; 22-30 The Forest-dweller’s Inner Heat; 31-2 The Forest-dweller’s Death; 33-41 The Ascetic’s Departure; 42-9 The Ascetic’s Behaviour; 50-60 The Ascetic’s Begging; 61-5 The Ascetic’s Meditation on Transmigration; 66-72 The Ascetic’s Duty and Breath-suppression; 73-5 The Ascetic’s Meditation on Transmigration; 76-81 The Ascetic’s Death; 82-5 The Ascetic’s Veda; 86-90 Householder Ascetics; 91-4 The Ten-fold Duty; 95-7 Householder Renouncers

Chapter 7
1-8 The King as Incarnation of the Gods; 9-13 The Anger of the King; 14-19 The Rod of Punishment; 20-31 Incorrect and Correct Punishment; 32-5 The Good King; 36-42 The Humility of the King; 44-53 The Eighteen Vices; 54-62 Ministers; 63-8 The Ambassador; 69-77 Fortifications; 78-81 Other Officials; 82-6 Giving Gifts to Priests; 87-98 Warfare; 99-101 Four Ways of Accomplishing Goals; 102-6 Readiness; 107-9 The Four Expedients; 110-13 Guarding the Kingdom; 114-19 The Appointment of Officials; 120-24 Guarding against Corruption; 124-32 Wages and Taxation; 133-6 Protecting Learned Priests; 137-40 Tax Exemptions for the Poor; 141-4 Protecting the Subjects; 145-53 The King’s Day; 154-8 The Circle of Enemies and Allies; 159-76 The Six Tactics; 177-80 The Essence of Political Policy; 181-8 Marching; 189-94 Deploying Troops; 195-7 Laying Siege; 198-200 The Four Expedients; 201-11 Behaviour in Victory; 212-15 Behaviour in Extremity; 216-20 The King’s Food and Poision; 221-6 The King’s Relaxations

Chapter 8
1-3 The King as Judge; 4-7 The Eighteen Causes of Legal Action; 8-11 The Judges; 12-22 The Dangers of Injustice; 23-6 Investigative Techniques; 27-9 The Property of Women and Children; 30-34 Property Lost and Found; 35-9 Treasure Trove; 40-46 General Principles of Law; 47-51 Debtors and Creditors; 52-60 Debtors who Violate Court Procedures; 61-78 Witnesses in Cases of Debt; 79-88 Charging the Witnesses; 89-101 Consequences of Giving False Evidence; 103-8 Reasons and Redemptions for Giving False Evidence; 109-16 Oaths and Ordeals; 117-23 Punishments for Giving False Evidence; 124-30 Forms of Punishment; 131-9 The Measurements of Fines; 140-62 Interest Rates, Loans, and Pledges; 163-8 Contracts; 169-75 The King’s Behaviour; 176-8 Debts; 179-96 Deposits; 197-202 Sale without Ownership; 203-5 Bride-price; 206-13 Sacrificial Gifts to Officiating Priests; 214-17 Failure to Pay Wages; 218-23 Breach of Contract; 224-9 Flawed and Invalid Weddings; 230-36 Responsibilities of Herdsmen; 237-44 Damage Done by Livestock; 245-66 Boundary Disputes; 267-78 Verbal Assault; 279-87 Physical Assault; 288-9 Damage to Property; 290-98 Traffic Accidents; 299-300 Corporal Punishment; 301-9 The King’s Right to Tax; 310-13 The King’s Duty to Punish; 314-18 The Punishment of Thieves by the King; 319-38 Punishments for Various Thefts; 339-43 Permissible Thefts; 344-51 Acts of Violence; 352-63 Sexual Misconduct; 364-8 The Corruption of Maidens; 369-70 Lesbianism; 371-3 Adultery; 374-8 Punishments for Inter-class Sexuality; 379-81 Priests Exempt from Capital Punishment; 382-5 More Punishments for Inter-class Sexuality; 386-97 Miscellaneous Rules; 398-403 Duties and Fixed Prices; 404-9 Ferry-fares and Boat-fares; 410-20 The Work of Commoners and Servants

Chapter 9
1-4 The Dependence of Women; 5-18 Why Women Should Be Guarded; 19-21 Restorations for Women’s Errors; 22-5 The Dependence of Women on Husbands; 26-30 The Importance of Women; 31-40 The Son Born in the Husband’s Field; 41-55 The Danger of Sowing in Another Man’s Field; 56-70 Producing Male Heirs by Appointment; 71-3 Rejection of a Bride; 74-9 Separation from or Hatred of a Husband; 80-84 Rejection of a Wife; 85-7 Wives of Various Classes; 88-92 The Father’s Duty to Give his Daughter; 93-100 Against the Bride-price; 101-2 Fidelity: Marriage in a Nutshell; 103-10 Inheritance of the Eldest Son; 111-19 Inheritance of the Other Sons and Daughters; 120-21 Inheritance of the Son Born in the Field; 122-6 Inheritance of Sons of Various Wives; 127-36 Inheritance through Appointed Daughters; 137-9 Salvation through Sons; 140-2 Sons’ Roles in the Funeral Ritual; 143-7 Disinheritance of Sons of Appointed Daughters; 148-57 Inheritance of Sons of Wives of Various Classes; 158-81 Twelve Kinds of Sons; 182-91 Miscellaneous Heirs; 192-200 Inheritance of the Mother’s Estate; 201-6 Inheritance of Defective Sons and Educated Sons; 207-19 Inheritance of Divided and United Brothers; 220-28 The Evils of Gambling; 229-34 Miscellaneous Punishments Inflicted by the King; 235-42 Punishments by the King for Major Crimes; 243-7 Fines Not to Revert to the King; 248-9 Corporal and Capital Punishment by the King; 250-55 Duties of a King; 256-71 Detection and Punishment of Thieves; 272-93 More Miscellaneous Punishments by the King; 294-297 The Elements of the Kingdom; 298-302 The King’s Behaviour, like the Ages; 303-12 The King’s Behaviour, like the Gods’; 313-25 The King’s Deference to Priests; 326-36 The Duties of Commoners and Servants

Chapter 10
1-4 The Four Classes; 5-10 Sons and Outcasts Born “with-the-grain”; 11-19 Outcasts Born “against-the-grain”; 20-23 Outlaws and their Offspring; 24-31 Excluded Classes Born “against-the-grain”; 32-40 The Offspring of Excluded Classes and Aliens; 41-4 Risen and Fallen Degraded Castes; 45-9 The Occupations of Aliens and Outcasts; 50-56 The Treatment of Outcasts; 57-61 The Character and Behaviour of Outcasts; 62-8 Rising in Caste through Virtue; 69-73 The Seed and the Field; 74-80 The Occupations of the Twice-born; 81-94 Priests Living as Rulers or Commoners; 95-100 Rulers, Commoners, and Servants Living as Other Classes; 101-4 Priests in Adversity; 105-8 Famous Priests in Adversity; 109-17 Three Courses and Seven Ways for Priests in Adversity; 118-20 Rulers in Extremity; 121-5 Servants in Adversity; 126-31 The Duties of Servants

Chapter 11
1-4 Vedic Graduates who Beg; 5-10 Supporting Dependants; 11-26 Obtaining Sacrificial Materials from Others; 27-30 Sacrificing in Extremity; 31-5 The Priest’s Right to Punish; 36-43 People who Should Not Give the Daily Fire Sacrifice; 44-7 Restorations; 48-54 Physical Results of Unrestored Crimes; 55-9 The Major Crimes; 60-67 The Minor Crimes; 68-71 Crimes that Cause Loss of Caste; 72-90 Restorations for Killing a Priest; 91-8 Restorations for Drinking Liquor; 99-102 Restorations for Stealing Gold; 103-7 Restorations for Killing a Cow; 118-24 Restorations for Shedding Semen; 125-6 Restorations for Loss of Caste; 127-31 Restorations for Killing People other than Priests; 132-46 Resorations for Killing Animals; 147-50 Restorations for Drinking Intoxicating Drinks; 151-61 Restorations for Eating Forbidden Foods; 162-9 Restorations for Theft; 170-79 Restorations for Having Sex with Forbidden Women; 180-91 Restorations for Associating with Fallen Men; 192-7 Reentering the Community; 198-204 Miscellaneous Restorations; 205-10 Restorations for Insulting Priests; 211-20 Descriptions of Vows of Restoration; 221-6 General Restorations; 227-33 Remorse; 234-45 Inner Heat as Restoration; 246-8 Veda as Restoration; 249-61 Particular Vedic Verses as Restorations; 262-6 Veda as Restoration

Chapter 12
1-2 The Fruits of Actions; 3-11 Acts of Mind, Speech, and Body; 12-15 The Knower of the Field; 16-23 Construction of the Body for Hell; 24-38 The Three Qualities of the Self; 39-53 Transmigrations according to Qualities; 54-72 Transmigrations according to Crimes; 73-81 The Torments of Hells and Transmigrations; 82-5 Acts that Bring about the Supreme Good; 86-90 Vedic Activity; 91-3 Knowledge of the Self; 94-106 The Value of Knowing the Veda; 107-15 Authorities and Legal Assemblies; 116-26 Meditation on the Self

Bibliography
Index and Glossary

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